Charles XII of Sweden

(1682-1718)
Charles was the son of Charles XI and Urica Leonora (daughter of Fredrick III of Denmark), with his father influence he learnt theology, military science, the classics, languages, mathematics, and history. Charles XII hunted with his father to test his endurance, where he learnt to ride before he was three; he had mock battles with his peers/teachers and familiarize himself with the administration at an early age. Charles XI died in 1697, leaving the adolescence Charles XII, to take the throne. During his reign, he made alliances with England and the Netherlands, supporting stand on the Spanish succession where they possessed the Baltic and had the agreement of Holstein-Gottorp. Even though Charles XII tried to avoid the war and solve things peacefully, wars arise in the north where his enemies were Fredrick IV of Denmark, Augustus II of Poland-Saxony and Peter the Great o Russia.

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An Absolute Leader

-exercise absolute control over the state, influence of church and nobility were lessen
-centralize power instead of having monarchies have separate control over lands
-a person who increase the state's power
-demonstrate his/her power through lavishing d├ęcor (eg. Louis and the Palace of Versailles)
-believed that they were places in power by God, and so no one was to question them (divine right)

-raising a professional armies

Charles XII

*he had absolute control over the state, no religious or nobility problems arise
*no one question his role as king
*control an army, his use of artillery, his tactics and strategy (in a European context) showed he was a fantastic military leader
*he was victorious in his battle with Denmark in 1700 where he landed his troops on Zeeland
-under the pressure of his allies he signed a treaty at Travendal where it was returned to the status quo
*Poland was next in the same year where Augustus had already withdrawn when he reached Livonia so he relieved Narva from the Czar
-he chased Augustus out of the throne in 1703 and placed Stanislaus Leszcynski on Poland's thorne
*Charles then started to losw when he met with Peter the Great
-he died in 1719 where his sister, Ulrica Leonara took over to end the Northern War
*didn't ruin Sweden economically




"Charles XII." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 464-466. Secondary School Collection. Web. 14 June 2010.
Kagan, Donald. "The Western Heritage". Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007.